# How Many Solar Panels Do I Need for My Home?

We estimate that a typical residence would require between 17 and 21 solar panels to generate all of its electrical needs. To determine how many solar panels you need, you will require the following information: your yearly electricity consumption, the wattage of the solar panels you’re contemplating, and the expected production ratio of your solar system. The number of solar panels required can be determined by dividing the system size by the production ratio and then by the panel wattage.

The quantity of solar panels you will need to install depends on your geographic location, the efficiency of the panels, their rated power, and your energy usage patterns. Moreover, the amount of solar panels required for your home has a direct effect on the cost of solar energy. Although the answer is not always straightforward, we’ve compiled some examples to help you understand, on a high level, how many solar panels you need to create an effective residential solar array.

What information is required to calculate the number of solar panels required?

When you begin calculating the quantity of solar panels you require, there are numerous factors to consider:

Wattage of the solar panels under consideration

The expected yield of your solar energy system

How to calculate the number of solar panels required

You may calculate the amount of solar panels you require by calculating your annual electricity consumption by the area’s production ratio, and then dividing this result by the power output of your solar panels. Let’s dissect that a bit:

Several variables affect the calculation of how many solar panels you’ll need to meet all of your energy needs. Using our Solar Calculator is the simplest approach to determine how many panels you will need. When you enter your address and expected monthly energy cost, we’ll do the math for you so you can make an informed choice. If you wish to perform these calculations yourself, we have provided our formula below.

The formula we used to estimate the quantity of solar panels necessary to power your home is dependent on the following variables. Here are our assumptions and our mathematical methodology:

Yearly electricity consumption

Your yearly electricity consumption is the quantity of energy you consume in your home over the course of a year. This quantity is measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh) and is affected by the amount and frequency of electrical appliances in your home. Many gadgets, including refrigerators, air conditioners, small kitchen appliances, lights, and chargers, require electricity.

In accordance with U.S. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the average American household consumes 10,632 kWh of electricity per year (or 886 kWh per month). Using this number as the ideal solar panel system or solar array size, you could offset 100 percent of your electricity usage and utility bill with solar panels. If you want a more precise amount based on how much energy you consume, examine your power bills from the previous year to determine your typical electricity consumption. Once you’ve determined the value, feel free to plug it into the formulae below.

Solar panel wattage

Panel wattage, often known as the power rating of a solar panel, is the optimal electricity production of a particular solar panel. Wattage is measured in watts (W), and the majority of solar panels produce between 300 and 400+ W. According to our most recent Intel Report, the most often cited capacity range in the EnergySage Marketplace is between 390 and 400 watts.

Manufacturing ratios

The production ratio of a solar panel system is the ratio of its estimated energy output over time (in kWh) to the actual system size (in W). These ratios are usually never 1:1; your production ratio will vary based on the number of hours of sunlight your system will receive, which is mostly determined by your geographic location.

For instance, a 10 kW system that generates 14 kWh of power per year has a production ratio of 1.4 (14/10 = 1.4) — this is a completely realistic production ratio to see in the actual world. In the United States, production ratios are typically between 1.3 and 1.6, so we will utilize the upper and lower bounds of this range for our computation.

How do the three primary assumptions (energy use, solar panel wattage, and production ratios) translate into an expected quantity of solar panels for your home? The formula is as follows:

System size / production ratio / panel wattage = number of panels

Using our previous calculations, we get:

Quantity of panels equals 10,632 kWh divided by 1.3 or 1.6 and 390 W

…which offers us between 17 and 21 solar panels, depending on the production ratio we employ (17 for a 1.6 ratio, and 21 for a 1.3 ratio). Hence, 17 panels at 390 W each yield a system size of around 6.6 kW!

Solar panel cost

There is consideration for the number of solar panels to purchase, but cost is not a concern. On average, solar panels cost \$2.86 per watt. The overall average installation cost for a 10 kW system is \$20,020. (after accounting for the 30 percent federal solar tax credit). This varies greatly according on location, installation cost, and incentives, with warmer climates being less expensive but requiring more panels, and colder climates requiring more panels.

Principal factors to estimate how much solar energy you need

With the three inputs listed above, you can calculate the number of solar panels you require, but there are many more considerations involved in choosing the optimal size of your solar panel system. Understanding production ratios, the relationship between system size and number of panels, and the effect of home size might be crucial when choosing the optimal solar panel installation.

How much energy can your solar panels produce?

The production ratio of your solar energy system is determined by the quantity of sunlight exposure your roof receives, which is measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). The amount of sunlight you receive in a given year varies on both your location and the season. California, for example, has more sunny days per year than New England. But regardless of your location, you will be able to create enough energy to fulfill your demands and eliminate your utility costs; if you reside in an area with fewer peak sunlight hours, you will simply need to construct a larger solar array system at your home. Consequently, production ratios vary by geographic location, and a lower production ratio (due to less sunshine) necessitates the usage of more solar panels to provide the required amount of electricity.

Two comparable-sized families in California and Massachusetts consume the average amount of electricity for an American household, which was formerly stated to be 10,632 kWh annually. 100 percent of a California home’s electricity needs are satisfied by a 6,6 kW system. Comparatively, the average Massachusetts household requires an 8.2 kW system to meet their electrical needs. California solar panel systems are smaller than Massachusetts solar panel systems, but are able to produce the same amount of energy since they receive more peak sunlight hours per year. Homeowners in less sunny regions, such as Massachusetts, can compensate for this gap by adopting more efficient panels or expanding their solar energy system, resulting in somewhat more solar panels on their rooftop.

How many solar panels are need for various system sizes?

In our lengthy example at the beginning of this article, we estimated that a 6.6 kW system would likely cover the average energy use of an American household if you reside in an area with a production ratio of 1.6, which is a value that could be practical for most California homes.

Let’s look at a couple more examples to further illustrate this point. In the table below, we’ve produced solar panel count estimates for typical EnergySage Marketplace solar system sizes. Again, the most important limitation is that the preferred production ratio is 1.6. For consumers in California, this may be plausible, but for those in the Northeast or other regions with less sunlight, these figures may be a touch high on the production end and low on the number of panels required.

The above table again assumes that you’re using 390 solar panels and your production ratio is 1.6; however, the number of panels you need to power your home and the amount of space your system will require on your roof will vary depending on whether you’re using low-efficiency or high-efficiency panels (which generally correlates to low and high power rating, respectively).

Possibly one of the most challenging components of sizing a solar panel array is assessing your household’s annual energy use. A variety of larger consumer products or add-ons might considerably affect your annual kWh demand and the quantity of panels you will need. For instance, if you have a central air conditioning system or a heated pool in your backyard, the size of your solar panel array could be significantly adjusted. To get a sense of the size you’ll need, you should assess the energy effect of the things you now own or are considering purchasing for your home.

How much space do you have in your roof?

Ultimately, you can only install as many solar panels as will fit on your roof. The table below will give you an idea of how much space your system will require on your roof, depending on the power output of the solar panels you choose.

Whether your property is small or has an oddly shaped roof, it is crucial to evaluate the size of solar panels. Those with a large roof may be able to forgo some efficiency and purchase larger panels to get optimal energy output. But, those with a smaller roof must be able to utilize fewer small high-efficiency panels, such as those manufactured by SunPower, LG, or REC. With these uncommon roofs, you may end up with the following system design:

Solar panels installed on a roof

How does the size of your home affect the quantity of solar panels required?

While solar panel dimensions have remained relatively constant over the past many years, electricity output per unit area has improved considerably. In reality, many manufacturers, including as SunPower, have reduced the size of gaps between panels and employ invisible framing and mounting gear to maintain the panels’ tightness, efficiency, and aesthetic appeal. Go to the table below for an approximation of the number of solar panels your property would require based on its square footage (assuming 390 W solar panels and a production ratio of 1.6).

How many solar panels do common appliances require?

Reviewing the various kWh requirements for common household appliances and products makes one thing abundantly clear: some add-ons will have a significant impact on your monthly energy use and the size of the solar panel system you should install. Pairing your electric vehicle with solar panels, for instance, is a terrific method to cut carbon emissions and increase energy efficiency; but, you must plan properly, since it might quadruple the size of your solar energy system.

Though it is possible to install a solar system and have a solar installer add more panels later to accommodate increased energy needs, the most practical approach is to size your system as precisely as possible based on anticipated purchases, such as an electric vehicle, swimming pool, or central air conditioning system. Asking, “How many solar panels do I need for my refrigerator, hot tub, etc.?” is an excellent habit for any new solar homeowner.

Solar panel requirements for individual appliances

Product Annual average electricity demand Quantity of solar panels required

Refrigerator 600 kWh 1

1 kWh of window air conditioner 215

a central air conditioner that uses 1,000 kWh 2

3,000 kilowatt-hours five

Swimming pool heating 2,500 kWh 4

Hot tub (outside) 3,300 kWh 6

Do you still need to pay an electric bill if you have solar panels?

After solar panel installation, you will continue to receive a monthly electricity bill. Therefore, it ought to be less than zero or even negative! If you continue to incur excessive utility expenses after installing solar panels, you may need to reevaluate the size of your system. Especially if you have additional electrical needs (such as an electric vehicle) since your solar installation, your present system size may no longer enough.

Only if you opt to go off-grid by adding a solar battery would you not have an electric bill, but in most circumstances it’s better to keep your solar energy system grid-tied, even if you add battery storage.

Are there disadvantages to using solar panels to power a home?

The two primary downsides of solar energy are the high upfront costs and intermittency, which means that solar energy is unavailable at night. Fortunately, this issue can be partially resolved with battery storage. Check read our post on the pros and cons of renewable energy for additional information.

Are solar panels cost-effective?

Depending on your electricity costs, your electricity consumption, your desire to be environmentally conscious, and the location of your home, solar panels are definitely worth installing. Solar panels are initially expensive, but they pay for themselves over time by reducing your electricity bill. After an average of eight to nine years, EnergySage customers “break even” on their solar investment. Yet as solar deployment continues to increase (driving down costs) and inflation rates rise, solar will likely become even more valuable.

How can the number of solar panels be determined?

You may determine the amount of solar panels you need by calculating your annual electricity consumption by the area’s production ratio, and then dividing that result by the power output of your solar panels.